retting of fibres by bacteria
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- posted January 10, 2021
Hackling is a combing process used to separate the long fibres from the short fibres and to remove the remaining woody material. This high growth rate and the ability to flourish in such diverse climates gives the bamboo plant the potential to be a highly sustainable and versatile resource. A new process has recently been developed that makes it possible to use the same machinery as cotton when weaving hemp. It is an ecologically sustainable plant requiring far less water and no chemical pesticides or fertilisation. The nutrients from the decaying stalks means that this method is highly polluting to the water source. The bast fibres are stuck together with a ‘glue’ formed of pectins and lignins. In the mechanical process the woody stems are crushed and natural enzymes break down the stems so that the fibres can be combed out and spun, using similar methods to the production of flax. This is the most important bamboo type in China, where it covers about 3 million hectares. The actual fibres are located between the epidermis, or bark surface, and an inner woody core. In Bangladesh it was called the “golden fibre,” as trade in jute brought the largest amount of foreign currency into the country. Research is already under way to develop the use of nettles for textiles. It is often blended with cotton and wool. Field retting is an industrial process for extracting valuable bast fibres from hemp. This type of fibre is known as bast fibre (nettles, hemp and jute are other examples of bast fibres). One hectare of bamboo can sequester 62 tonnes of carbon dioxide per year while one hectare of young forest only sequesters 15 tonnes of carbon dioxide per year. There are two types of ramie; China Grass which is also known as true ramie or white ramie and green ramie which are believed to have originated in Malaysia. The released fibre bundles, called strands, are frequently used without additional separation, in which case they are called fibres. The quality of the final linen yarn and fabric is dependent upon the growing conditions, harvesting methods and whether it is a short fibre known as tow or the more desirable long line fibre. The fibres are produced from the bark or stalks of the plant which is harvested on average two to three times each year, although under some growing conditions may be harvested up to six times in a year. It also greatly reduces rain run-off. It is a more expensive fibre than cotton with much more of a niche market and therefore is an ideal vehicle for organic cultivation and ecological production methods. In Canada the export of hemp seeds has increased by over 300% over the last two years. The fibres support the conductive cells of the phloem and provide strength to the stem. The emerging uses for it today span engineering applications, insulation paper and clothing grade cloth as well as providing vegetable oil from the seeds. Example:Jute is associated with the process of Retting. Japan, under American influence also restricted the growth of hemp in 1948 and is one of the few Eastern countries to have prohibited its cultivation. The natural processing of Litrax bamboo allows the fibre to remain strong to produce an extremely high quality product, and the process results in a very durable textile. After hackling, washing and drying (in the shade) the fibres are loosened manually and cleaned. The processes for making nettles into desirable and commercially viable textiles are developing all the time and offer a far more environmentally sustainable alternative to conventional cotton. The extensive root system of bamboo and the fact that it is not uprooted during harvesting means bamboo actually helps preserve soil and prevent soil erosion. Field retting is an industrial process for extracting valuable bast fibres from hemp. Other important producers of hemp include: China, North Korea, Romania and Hungary. The seeds and stalks as well as the general fermentation of the plant produces an oil that may be used as bio diesel, and while a low energy fuel it is better than other similar crops. Retting permits separation of the fibre bundles, and individual fibres, from the vegetal skin and the woody core cells. It is reported to yield ~6–10 tons of dry matter per acre, nine times the yield of wood. The principal consumers of Ramie fibre are Japan, France, Germany and the United Kingdom. However, herbicide and fertilizer applications are common in some places to encourage edible shoot growth. Up to the mid 1980s the old Soviet Union was the largest producer, much of it being cultivated in the Ukraine and the parts of Russia close to Poland. The hard fibres are obtained by decortication and the soft fibres by ginning process as the machines remove the product from the plant. Traditional uses for ramie have been for heavy industrial-type fabrics such as canvas, packaging material, and upholstery. Jute is a long, soft, shiny vegetable fibre that can be spun into strong threads. Bamboo is a very-fast growing woody grass that can produce shoots of up to a metre per day. As it is a grass species it regenerates after being cut, much like a lawn, which negates the need for replanting. The fibers are loosened in a few hours, but close control is required to prevent deterioration and damage to the fibres. The lipopolysaccharides of tail fibres act as receptor in phages. Microbes are used in retting to obtain bast fibres. Along with flax, this fast-growing plant is now the basis for a new textile woven on conventional cotton-machinery, called CRAILAR� Organic Fibres. Microbes are also important in agriculture for the compost and fertilizer production. Click here to get an answer to your question ️ Retting of fibres is caused by [JIPMER 1987]A) BacillusB) ClostridiumC) NitrobacterD) Rhizobium. About 40 million hectares of the earth is covered with bamboo, mostly in Asia. For more information on linen, go into the Linen-Bast category. During harvesting, the plant stalks are cut off close to the base or pulled up. These include linseed oil for linoleum, soap, fuel and cattle feed. Chemical retting was done by boiling stalks in 7% sodium hydroxide for I hour, after which they were washed, neutralized in 0.2% acetic acid. The production of hemp in Western countries is growing steadily to meet the growing interest in sustainable textiles. Retting of fibres is caused by [JIPMER 1987]A) BacillusB) ClostridiumC) NitrobacterD) Rhizobium - Brainly.in. This restriction has hampered its use as a modern commercially viable raw material. Even when these are used flax requires only one fifth of the pesticides and artificial fertilisers that is required for commercially grown cotton. Hemp is an ecologically and sustainably important plant, running in tandem with ‘green future’ objectives and is often referred to as the World’s most useful plant. Hemp fibre can also be ‘cottonised’ by a process similar to that used for flax, it is however not easy to spin but does make for a very good blend when used together with cotton in a 50-50 ratio. Basic methods include dew retting and water retting. These closely related bast fibers are derived from Hibiscus cannabinus and H. sabdariffa (mallow family, Malvaceae), respectively. Ramie is also an important fabric both woven and knitted for the North American market where it is seen as a cheaper ‘linen look’ alternative. Nettle fibres are white, smooth, and up to 50mm (2”) long, and can produce a finer and silkier fabric than flax. It contributes to the construction and automotive industries as well as the health food and cosmetics industries. Linen absorbs dye well, especially natural dyes and does not require chemical treatments. The same manufacturing process is used to produce linen fabric from flax or hemp. In this process, indigenous bacteria and notably fungi present on the plant stems degrade pectin between the fibres and the stem surface 1990). Today the major producers are China and India. Your email address will not be published. Nettles have a long history as a textile fibre substitute for linen, dating back to medieval times, and have also been used commercially more recently during both World Wars, when other crops such as cotton were scarce. Increased production of the fibre in Asia, and particularly China, has promoted the use in blended fabrics with silk, linen, and cotton, which can now be found on the market. As a textile fibre it blends well with both other natural fibres and synthetics and when dyed it retains colour well being both colour and light fast. Bamboo typically grows very densely and its clumping nature enables substantial quantities to be grown in a comparatively small area, easing pressure on land use. A short history of retting methods, which is the separation of bast fiber from nonfiber components, is presented with emphasis on water retting, field retting (dew retting), and experimental methods. Centre for Learning and Teaching in Art and Design, Bast fibres, like linen and flax are obtained from the, Following retting, a sequence of processes to remove the fibres from the woody stalks is carried out first by, Linen, or flax is the most luxurious of all the bast fibres and has a very specific tactile appeal; it is smooth and lustrous to both the eye and hand, the fibre is almost silky in texture, yet embodies a springy freshness. Nettles have the potential to be a viable alternative to cotton, and other textiles that are harmful to the environment. Flax is the only commercial cellulosic textile plant indigenous to Western Europe; it is also the strongest of all the vegetable fibres being two to three times stronger than cotton. The principal difference between the two varieties is the level of THC (tetra hydro cannabinol) that is secreted in a resin like mixture. Many Chinese producers of bamboo viscose continue to use caustic chemicals in their processing, negating the sustainable benefits of the raw fibre. Tossa jute is also grown as a staple food and is now grown in India. By retting the fibres they are softened and can be decorticated and extracted by beating 16, which is usually done by hand. Ramie has very similar properties to linen; it is a natural white in color, has an excellent lustre and is unusually resistant to bacteria and moulds. The beneficial uses of bacteria include the production of traditional foods such as yogurt, cheese, and vinegar. It also produces minimum wastage, as there are several by-products. This regular harvesting is of benefit to the health of the plant and studies have shown that cutting of bamboo canes leads to vigorous re-growth and an increase in the amount of biomass the following year. The process involves soaking (water retting) or exposure to moisture (dew-, or field-, retting) using pectin enzymes naturally secreted by indigenous microflora. Dew Simply put, retting is a plant fibre-extraction process in which fibre-rich plants are made subject to decomposition via heavily exposing it to moisture which promotes microbial activity. Natural retting is considered to be impractical for modern industrial purposes, but this low technology will always be appropriate somewhere, and never completely obsolete. It is commonly used in regions of low water supply. Search. 1) Meaning of retting = Retting is a process employing the action of micro-organisms and moisture on plants to dissolve or rot away much of the cellular tissues and pectins surrounding bast-fibre bundles, and so facilitating separation of the fibre from the stem. Jute has very strong environmental credentials, as it does not require excessive watering, fertilisers or pesticides; it is a fast growing plant with a good yield ratio of fibre to weight and acreage. Conversely Cannabis sativa L. subsp. Germany and Brazil also import raw jute from Bangladesh. Sativa which is commonly known as Industrial hemp and is the term given to the variety grown for fibre and other non drug related purposes. It takes 2–4 weeks for dam retting. 3.1 ~ Retting Hemp bast fiber must be separated from the woody core by mechanical means (decortication) or by the process of "retting" (rotting). The fibre was not damaged by mechanical hackling, thanks to the good retting level obtained by the addition of selected strains, differently to what happened with the traditionally retted fibre. It is mostly used in the furnishing textile industries, however due to its durability and advantageous properties it is also now being developed for high performance technical textiles. www.tlist-journal.org Textiles and Light Industrial Science and Technology (TLIST) Volume 2 Issue 4, October 2013 Study on Extraction of Bamboo Fibres from Raw Bamboo Fibres Bundles Using Different Retting Techniques Varinder Kaur1, D P Chattopadhyay2, Satindar Kaur3 1Department of Applied Chemical Sciences & Technology, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar 2Department of Textile … In this review, bast fibre retting process and the effect of enzymatic retting on the fibre and fibre-reinforced polymer composites have been discussed and reviewed for the latest research studies. Plantation-grown kenaf is capable of growing from seedlings to 5 m at maturity in five months. Since the 1930s the focus has been the production of strains that offer a poor sources of drug material. For this purpose, stems of fibre yielding plants are immersed in water for long period where decomposition sets in. Dutch company Brennels, in consultation with the De Montfort STING project is currently cultivating nettles in Holland's North-East Polder region. Two methods employed for retting flax at commercial levels using pectinolytic microorganisms are water- and dew-retting. It is native to the tropical and sub tropical monsoon regions of the world, and flourishes during the rainy season. Flax processing is, however labour intensive, requiring skilled workers. It grows best under traditional farming methods where the crops are rotated and fields are allowed to lay fallow; it also benefits from a longer lifespan. Kenaf fiber sample … Ramie is a flowering plant of the nettle family boehmeria niveea that is native to Eastern Asia. White or pure white is only achieved through various bleaching processes. DISCUSSION Aniumber of bacteria, both aerobic and anaerobic, are involved in the retting of jute. A huge benefit of using bamboo as the organic base for textile fibres is that there is no need for pesticides or fertilisers when growing bamboo. India produces a variety of hemp known as Sunn or Bombay Hemp. The future may see nettles as a crop that can transform lives for those growing textile crops in the developing world. Chemical retting is more expensive and does not produce the superior quality fibre obtained from the biological retting process. The quality of the final linen yarn and fabric is dependent upon the growing conditions, harvesting methods and whether it is a short fibre known as, It is a more expensive fibre than cotton with much more of a niche market and therefore is an ideal vehicle for organic cultivation and ecological production methods. In double retting, a gentle process producing excellent fibre, the stalks are removed from the water before retting i… Not all bacteria isolated fromretted jute are responsible for theprocess, as for instance, seven species of aerobic bacteria were isolated fromretted jute but only oneof them, B. poly- … Very little bamboo is irrigated and there is sound evidence that the water-use efficiency of bamboo is twice that of other trees. It is used in areas of internal body parts where its strength and lightness of weight make the vehicles more fuel-efficient and thus a better ecological proposition. Fibre retting Bacterial populations, especially that of Clostridium butyclicum, are used to separate fibres of jute, hemp, flax, etc, the plants are immersed in water and when they swell, inoculated with bacteria which hydrolyze pectic substance of the cell walls and separate the fibres.These separated fibres are used to make ropes and sacks. Additionally linen is up to twelve times stronger than the equivalent cotton product, which dramatically increases its life spun and therefore does not need to be replaced so often. The longest and more desirable flax fibres are from plants that have been hand harvested; this is the process of pulling the complete plant with root (fibres go all the way to the root) from the ground. The water, penetrating to the central stalk portion, swells the inner cells, bursting the outermost layer, thus increasing absorption of both moisture and decay-producing bacteria. Chemical retting involves immersion of the dried plants in a tank with a solution of chemicals, such as sodium hydroxide, sodium carbonate, high pH agents, pectinolytic enzymes or mineral acids. 2. It also sustains many varieties of invertebrate species. Sustainable land use practices that provide both economic and environmental advantages and are of global importance as the world’s six billion people compete for water, food, fibre and shelter, the high yield per hectare of bamboo becomes a very significant advantage. In 2004 a DEFRA funded project ‘Sustainable Technology in Nettle Growing’ (STING) at Leicester's De Montfort University has succeeded in extracting a silky thread that is stronger and finer than that of other plants such as hemp. However, it is far less labor intensive and less expensive than water retting. ting. This produces a more expensive fibre than bamboo viscose which is more widely used for contemporary clothing. This versatile fibre is also used for paper, film, composite materials and geotextiles in environmental engineering. Fiber characteristics such as bundle strength, elongation at break, color, luster, reed length, and gum content were compared for fibers … It is related to flax and hemp and can be used to produce a fine linen-like cloth. Hemp fabric withstands water better than any other textile product. The second best option is cutting the plant stalks very close to ground level. This study for the first time revealed the coexistence … It is ready for harvesting in 4 years and does not require re-planting as the extensive root base sprouts new shoots readily, it therefore has the potential to be a highly sustainable raw material. The common stinging nettle has great potential for fibre crop production; it is far stronger than cotton and finer than other bast fibres. and claims to use a more natural way of processing the bamboo into fibre. Kenaf fiber is also considered a substitute for jute and used in sacking, rope, and bags. This is a labour-intensive process and is used to produce bamboo ‘linen’. The fibres are naturally white and do not need to undergo any bleaching processes for either paper or cloth uses. Hemp is cultivated all over the world and was such an important crop that in the 19th century over 80% of the world’s fabric was made of hemp. Retting is a process employing the action of micro-organisms and moisture on plants to dissolve or rot away much of the cellular tissues and pectins surrounding bast-fibre bundles, and so facilitating separation of the fibre from the stem Retting with bacterial inoculum for 5–6 days led to major changes Starting from the second day of retting, the fibre samples in the ultimate fibres: the fibrous wall texture became from the tanks inoculated with the two selected bacterial more prominent, suggesting a loss of matrix components strains clearly showed better properties than the corre- (Fig. The world’s premier institute for the development of hemp is still situated in The Ukraine where it develops new varieties with improved fibre content, increased yield and low THC. This makes bamboo more able to handle harsh weather conditions such as drought, flood and high temperatures. Microbes are used in retting to obtain bast fibres. Kenaf fibers are shorter and coarser than those of jute. The soft tissues are removed from the fibre plant with the help of bacteria. Dew retting is a more sustainable process where the stalks are left out in the field for 6 weeks, and are acted upon by the dew, sun and fungi. Years of selective breeding have produced many different varieties. The traditional uses for kenaf have been rope, twine and coarse cloth as well as for fuel and nutrition. Following retting, a sequence of processes to remove the fibres from the woody stalks is carried out first by breaking them and then scraping or scutching them off which is done by beating with blunt wooden or metal blades either by hand or mechanically. They are also cultivating nettles in both the Czech Republic and Lithuania. However, within the European Union and Canada a licence has to be issued for its cultivation. Other properties include antistatic and low thermal conduction as well as offering a high level of UV protection. In this study, molecular, chemical, and scanning electron microscopy studies were employed to understand the field retting mechanisms involving microbiota, including microbial community dynamics, hemp colonization, functions/interactions, and hemp biodegradation. Water rettinginvolves leaving the stalks in tanks or ponds of water (or in a running river), and are acted upon by bacteria, rotting the stalk which separates the fibres from the woody core. Natural retting of coconut husks by native bacteria results in the release of toxic phenols delaying the extraction of the fibre and lowering the pH of the environmental waters detrimental to aquatic life. Tossa jute is softer and silkier and more lustrous than white jute. • The microorganisms, mostly bacteria from retting water enter the plant tissues through the stomata, epidermis and cambium or the cut end, when immersed in retting tank, and through their enzymatic action loosens the fibre strands from the woody core. Linen refers to yarn and fabric made from the fibres of the stem of the flax plant. It holds its shape well and does not wrinkle easily. explained in more detail below, hemp fibres are classically separated from the plant stems by “water retting”, which in essence is a microbial process. To improve the conventional retting process in stagnant water, a microbial consortium trade marked as ‘CRIJAF Sona’ has been developed by ICAR-CRIJAF which reduced retting duration by 6 … Industrial Hemp (Cannabis sativa L. subsp. This step is … This requires 10-12 months of anaerobic (bacterial) fermentation. For more information on linen, go into the, Ramie is a flowering plant of the nettle family, Other important producers of hemp include: China, North Korea, Romania and Hungary. Bacteria are economically important as these microorganisms are used by humans for many purposes. The penetration of water into the stems causes the detachment of the bast fibres, thus allowing the entry of retting bacteria, which demolish the fibre‐binding pectins (Donaghy et al. Hemp is the generic name for the entire cannabis family of plants. Bast fibre bundles are often several feet long and composed of overlapping cellulose fibres and a cohesive gum, or pectin, which strengthens the stem of the plant. The water, penetrating to the central stalk portion, swells the inner cells, bursting the outermost layer, thus increasing absorption of both moisture and decay-producing bacteria. Achieve a life span of twenty years as drought, flood and temperatures. Was also cultivated in India, mainly Bengal develop the use of artificial agents:. Other examples of bast fibres of the plant a natural resistance to pest and infestation! Grown as a modern commercially viable raw material ( via the retting of jute are also important in agriculture the... 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