how to end a running suture
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- posted January 10, 2021
Your email address will not be published. Your email address will not be published. (with inverted knot) - Most wounds should have some buried sutures in vicryl or PDS. No specific technique fulfills the exact requirements of a specific would closure. If the sutures are tied too tightly, tissue strangulation is a … Sometimes the situation does not readily permit these dermal sutures and the vertical method comes into its own. It can be applied as either an interrupted or continuous suture that repairs the collagenous submucosal layer without disturbing the lumen. Required fields are marked *. This added step will allow each loop of suture to act more independently in holding tension (almost like, but not quite as good as, a simple interrupted suture). All wounds, except the smallest, should be sutured in layers. This can have 2 or 3 turns with up to 3 throws on the first turn. Remove every second suture until the end … In sensitive areas, like a tongue laceration, use the interrupted sutures with buried knots. It can be used as an initial layer for a longer, higher-tension wound in order to create a lower tension environment for closing the wound with deep dermal sutures within the wound followed by either simple interrupted or running percutaneous sutures closer to the wound margins. running suture: (soo'chur) [L. sutura , a seam] 1. The ends are snipped flush with the skin at 10 days. Aim for about half a cm down from the end of the wound with a 90... 3. This technique is also used to better approximate edges of skin of varying texture or thickness. The downside is that vertical mattress sutures can only remain in place for 5-7 days or risk is high for permanent crosshatch marks. This suturing technique is used during surgeries of the eyelid. The downside is that interrupted sutures take considerably more time to place than continuous sutures. The surgical knots in a running suture will be located on either end of the wound. If you perceive that a specific suture is not ideally placed you can remove it and place it in a better position, unlike the running/continuous sutures where you may need to redo the entire running suture. The second splits ruptured tendon ends and sutures the other end into the created slit much like a male/female coupling design. 2. Use a fine skin hook or non-toothed forceps on wound edges. 2:48. This suture resembles those used on baseballs, and so, they are sometimes called baseball sutures. The downside is when used externally on the skin permanent hatch marks may remain. Care must be taken, if knots are not tied deep under the skin they can erode through the wound whilst healing. Interrupted sutures offer the highest level of control over wound closure and the result. If absorbable monofilament suture is used (e.g. However, ,the sutures are easily removed, making it a common technique to use on children. Grasp knotted end with forceps: 15. â¢ Wound edge is everted and the needle takes a small bite of dermis close to the dermis/fat junction. Although the running subcuticular suture is well described in surgical textbooks, 1 the “four-step method” is unique in that it separates and quantifies each component. The subcutaneous suture is similar to the interrupted sutures with buried knots, but it is placed in the depth of the tissue in a surgical or traumatic wound. The line of union in an immovable articulation, as those between the skull bones or the articulation itself. The thickness of the bite will then be equal at the top and bottom of the wound. This allows for better... 2. The needle is inserted at the base of one side of the wound and brought up near the skin, crosses the wound to the opposite side at approximately the same level, reinserted and run down to the base of the wound again. The drawback is that the procedure is extremely time-consuming. Thank you for your kind comment on our website. Similar to the double-arm suture, GÃ©lyâs suture uses suture material with a needle at both ends to close intestinal wounds. Rationale: The knot should be positioned away from the incision (see simple interrupted above). If the suture material breaks in a running suture, the whole wound will break down so be sure to secure the knots on the 2 sides and consider adding a couple of strategically placed interrupted sutures in addition to the running suture. This is the process of ensuring that edges are brought together as evenly as possible during suturing. Harris Kit. They close the dead space and take the tension off wound edges. Both proper healing and minimal scarring are achieved by accomplishing two main objectives. The suture was anchored to one post of a tensionometer with either square knots or a final series of half hitches.The running end of the suture was wound around the opposite post of the tensionometer and held there by friction. closing the incision between the oral and nasal cavities following a Le Fort 1 osteotomy. Once the skin edges are lying together, the monofilament nylon is inserted as an interrupted or running suture. You will want to gently lift up on one of the knots in order to cut into the suture material past the knot. Each stitch leaves 4 puncture marks so should be removed early where possible. For the inexperienced this is the preferred technique due to its ability to close a wound cleanly and securely. To bring more volume or quantity of tissue to the closure area. Running suture using a straight needle. â¢ repairing a long wound without a loop in the middle - it may be impossible to remove, British Society for Dermatological SurgeryPromoting Excellence in Skin Surgery, Mohs Surgery & Lasers, Surgical & Skin Cancer Award (previously known as Small Grants Award), Planning the Operative Proceedure, Basic Anatomy, Basic Instruments, Facilities, Sterilization, Local Random Flap â Subcutaneous island Pedicle, Surgical Management of Non Melanoma Skin Cancer, Surgical Management of Primary Cutaneous Melanoma, Safe Practice Against Blood Borne Virus Infections, Guidelines for Skin Surgery in General Practice, Medicolegal Aspects of Dermatological Surgery, Model Forms, Consent, Pre-Operative, Post-Operative. Inversion occurs when the epidermis on either side of the wound curls inwards and touches the epidermis on the opposite side. The needle holder is rotated counterclockwise once around the long end of the suture. Because the pulley stitch reduces the surface area of large wounds in which closure cannot be accomplished completely by traditional side-to-side sutures, it is an excellent technique for areas such as the legs and scalp. Tie with a square knot. This suture technique is accomplished by passing the needle through the loop created by the previous suture, locking it into place. Always use absorbable sutures when using this technique. Suturing Techniques â Guide (Infographic), https://www.theapprenticedoctor.com/shop/, https://www.theapprenticedoctor.com/elearning/suture/. This technique is preferred by some eye surgeons that desire to vertically or horizontally resect the rectus muscles. The far-and-near suture is a modified vertical mattress stitch that uses the tension created by a pulley action to close wound tissue. A bite is taken horizontally on one side of the wound followed by an equal sized bite on the other edge so that the needle emerges exactly opposite the initial point of entry. A flap of skin is sutured using multiple stitches to the underlying tendinous expansion sheet (aponeurosis) that normally connects muscle tissue with its movable parts. If one long piece of suturing thread is used, the physician is likely performing a continuous or running suture.A typical suturing technique like this will include placing the needle in the needle holder and then pushing the needle through the skin a few millimeters from the wound at … Laceration Repair with Running Horizontal Mattress Suture. â¢ The ends can be tied on themselves, tied around a button, etc. There is no need to wait on getting practice with suturing. To enhance eversion. ... To begin the next line, bring the needle up in line with the end of the stitch in the first line. Hand in hand with that, they are certainly the most technically challenging and time consuming of suturing techniques. Pull on the fishing sinker and cut the end of the suture at the skin level after closing the skin with a running suture (usually with a trichophytic closure). â¢ Remove at 7-10 days by cutting one end very close to the skin end before pulling through from the other end. This is a very good teaching tool. Keep in mind that new non-suturing closure methods are being developed that may be used as alternatives to suturing closure methods. 1:10. However, it is sufficient to insert a cross stitch which enters and leaves the tissue on one side, is carried across the vessel and enters and leaves the tissue on the other side. Running sutures are useful for long wounds in which wound tension has been minimized with properly placed deep sutures and in which approximation of the wound edges is good. Master Suturing Techniques Through The Apprentice Doctor! Additional alternating throws are added to secure the knot, and all three strands (1 from the long strand and 2 from the short loop) are cut 3-4 mm from the knot. Tie with a square knot (Fig 1). The downside is that retention sutures often cause pain and severe discomfort to patients. Also called the far-near-near-far suture or the pulley suture, this is a variation of the vertical mattress suture favored by some surgeons. Grasp knotted end with forceps, and in one continuous action pull suture out of the tissue and place cut knot on sterile 2 x 2 gauze. Healing can only occur properly if the two severed areas of tissue align and remain intact. This suturing technique is primarily used to eliminate dead space in the depth of a wound. There should be minimal tension on the most superficial stitches. The thickness and absorbability of the thread are also important. There are two uses for Czernyâs sutures. Therefore, it is vital to proper wound healing and scar reduction to suture wounds so that edges are everted, or slightly lifted outwards. jessrey725. The suture will retract under the skin (Figure 1B, C, and D). The time to suture removal depends on the location and the degree of tension the wound was closed under. The suture material is passed in and out of the tissue as a running stitch and then drawn closed like closing a purse or a bag. Running horizontal mattress suture. Then the suture is put through the wound pulling the two edges together. One can either use absorbable or non-absorbable sutures when placing subcuticular sutures. â¢ The needle enters beyond one end of the wound and emerges between the wound edges. 3:34. Although the use of âSteri-Stripsâ and âsuturing glueâ is tempting, it can only be used in very superficial wounds. Running sutures spread the suture tension evenly throughout the wound â and this may be important when working with tissue that has a soft consistency. A variation of the running percutaneous suturing technique involves “locking” each loop of suture as you go. â¢ Especially useful on breast and flexures. The first is ensuring that wound edges are not inverted during closure. Predictably, the purse-string suture will not give a good cosmetic result because it will bunch-up the tissue. The first bite approximates the wound edges and the second reduces edge tension. Each aspect of wound closure is important and attention to detail will give superior cosmetic and functional results both in the short and long term. This is accomplished by passing the needle through the loop of sutures. This brings both ends, the needle end and the other free end, to come out at the bottom of the wound. 3. This suture technique is used when a wound is expected to create excessive tension. The needle is inserted at the far right corner of the wound, parallel to the incision line, beginning approximately 2-5 mm from the apex. There is very little difference between regular running and interlocking running sutures. The short end of the suture is pulled through the loops of the long end by crossing the hands, so that the two ends of the suture are on opposite sides of the suture line. This suture resembles those used on baseballs, and so, they are sometimes called baseball sutures. Continuous locking sutures are commonly used for breast reconstructions, intestinal surgeries, and hernias, where soft tissue requires secure stitching. In a very deep wound, several layers may be necessary to close the defect. Doctorryanc. To remove sutures, one tail of the suture should be grasped with forceps and pulled gently towards one side to the wound, elevating the knot. In a very deep wound, several layers may be necessary to close the defect. Running sutures tend to bunch-up the tissue and shorten the wound length due to the tension needed to keep the wound margins together. Pull the needle holder towards you and push your non-dominant hand away to lay the first knot. The knot is tied and the suture cut very short. Once the skin edges are lying together, the monofilament nylon is inserted as an interrupted or running suture. Begin training today! â¢ Allows stitch to be left in for 2 weeks without stitch marks. Let go of the suture with your needle … Using this technique, you begin by using a nonabsorbable suture, running the suture as described above. Running Weight Loss: How To Remove Love Handles. â¢ In a long wound it is best to bring the suture out onto the surface half way along, cross over and into the other side before continuing with the subcuticular part. Surgical Suturing Techniques Mastery Guide (Article written by Dr Anton Scheepers who is a Maxillofacial and Oral Surgeon and founder of The Apprentice Doctor). Copyright © 2021 The Apprentice Doctor. Loop the suture away from you around the needle holder twice, then grasp the suture end with your needle holder. A relaxation suture allows for loosening in order to relieve such tension. The horizontal half-buried mattress, or 3-corner suture, is used to close flapped or V-shaped wound edges. Figure 1. Certain anatomical areas like the retroauricular skin, are prone to wound inversion, and this is an indication for placing horizontal continuous mattress sutures. â¢ Continue to the end and emerge beyond the wound. If using a blade to cut the suture, point the blade away from you and your patient. The secondary goal of suturing is minimizing scar tissue formation. The primary goal of suturing is to approximate (bring together the wound margins) and to eliminate dead space between wound walls and edges so that underlying tissues are held together. According to one study, up to 50 percent of patients receiving retention sutures require premature removal due to complaints of pain. Awesome article, thanks for the illustrations and time put forth, I am a Trauma/Acute Care Surgery, and a PA instructor. PDS) the suture can be left. Other Kits/Courses – STB/Phlebotomy and IV skills Scrub for Surgery training and Fracture reduction. The size, curve and point on the needle should be chosen to suit the job. This technique is commonly used when the wound is actively bleeding and saving time is critical, such as a scalp laceration. The knot is tied and the suture cut very short. The vertical mattress technique is an excellent choice for achieving wound edge eversion and approximation. Otherwise one gets a void below the surface along with associated problems like wound inversion, hematoma formation, wound infection, and wound dehiscence. All Rights Reserved. This is used for closing deep spaces and gives very nice eversion of the wound edge. The mattress suture provides more eversion up to the point where you may get opening of the wound edges. It is fast with acceptable cosmetic results. In esthetically sensitive areas, like the face, a surgeon will remove stitches/sutures by day 4 or 5 and secure the wound with Steri-Strips for another couple of days in an effort to avoid cross hatching scars. However, take care not to tie mattress sutures too tightly as doing so may cause tissue strangulation and result in necrosis of the tissue on the suture-tissue contact areas. Currently the most widespread technique, which was also used at our center until 1998, is an end-to-end anastomosis with a running suture on the membranous portion of the bronchus and single stitches on the cartilaginous part. How to remove your daytime running lights on a 96 99 Chevy. This technique is used to suture tubular structures such as blood vessels in order to stop bleeding or reestablish blood flow. Running (continuous) sutures provide an adequate closure with even tension distribution as well as saving both time and suture material. If in doubt, suture properly under anesthetic for improved healing and an aesthetically pleasing result. Use this suture to save a bit of time when closing a long incision. This varies between surgeon and situation, but as a general rule sutures on the head and neck are usually removed between five and seven days post-operatively, while sutures on trunk or extremity wounds are typically removed between ten and fourteen days. The main driver of choice of technique in suturing is the operatorâs/surgeonâs personal choice in a specific situation. The Apprentice DoctorÂ®Â Deluxe Suture Kit & Online Training Course teaches you how to confidently close wounds. Th… In some situations non-suturing methods are better options than traditional suturing approaches. The suture only passes through the dermis of the tip and avoids strangling the tissue. Minimal scarring occurs because external sutures are not used. The Lembert suture is another technique used in gastrointestinal surgeries. Pulley sutures can be used as temporary assisting stitches, such as lessening tension for buried sutures, or they can be left in for later removal. Course: https://www.theapprenticedoctor.com/elearning/suture/ Running stitch is a basic and versatile stitch. Apposition of the wound edge is easily achieved using the subcuticular continuous suture. The initial throw is passed from the epidermis on the opposite side of the wound, through the wound, and then out of the epidermis. The needle enters the skin normally but exits at mid dermis level before passing through the mid dermis of the tip and then through the mid dermis of the other side of the wound and out through the skin. The medical professional will select the appropriate needle, suture material, and suture technique depending on whether or not they want to achieve deep tissue dead space closure, lesser or greater wound tensile strength, less scarring, ease of application or care, etc. Interrupted sutures are sutures that are placed and tied individually. According to site one or several layers of sutures may be needed to close a wound. This is especially useful when suturing the point of a flap. Since a wound of this nature is in the hairline, in most cases the cosmetic result is usually not critical. The disadvantage is that suture breaks can cause wound gaps to occur. The suture needles, materials, and techniques selected are at the discretion of the surgeon or medical professional assessing the wound. The Running-X begins with a simple interrupted stitch. To increase the interphase or contact between the raw surface areas of two opposing wound sides. Action: Holding the needle with needle holders, place a simple interrupted suture and knot it, but only cut the end of the suture material that is not attached to the needle. Simple Running Closure is useful for straight incisions with minimal tension. Feel free to request an free evaluation kit. New methods include absorbable staples, sterile strips, and topical adhesives which can be used in combination with applied suture techniques or alone. It is recommended that interrupted sutures are used initially. A person stitches the running subcuticular suture horizontally into only the dermis layer of skin, not the epidermis. The medical professional will also take into account what works best in his/her hands. The subcuticular suture will allow for a very pleasing esthetic result in most cases, but it offers very little wound eversion by itself. The first involves suturing only the mucous membrane of the intestines. This technique is effective at reducing the formation of seroma (swelling or lump in the underlying tissue due to serum accumulation in a localized area). Retention sutures lessen tension on the primary suture so that wound disruption is limited. It is usually not the end of the world if one interrupted suture should loosen or dehisce as the remainder of the interrupted sutures will keep the wound closed. Unlike running sutures it will not distort the form of the wound. This suture will be the anchor for the rest of the suture line. Polypropylene (Prolene; Ethicon) suture (0, 2-0, 3-0, 4-0, and 5-0) was used throughout this study. When applied correctly, subcuticular continuous sutures provide the best outcome for cosmetic results. The far near, near far type of buried stitch results in better eversion of the wound edges. A knot is tied and the free end of the suture tail is cut leaving a small tail [Figure 1a]. I’m glad you enjoyed it and found it helpful. Thread the suture back though the skin down the length of the wound, using the tweezers.You will grasp the length of thread running over the skin surface and gently pull upward allowing the suture to slide out of the skin. Monocryl loses 50% of its tensile strength at approximately 3 weeks and completely absorbs within 8 weeks. The wound edge should be everted and the angle of the needle adjusted to ensure that the angle of entry is 90Â° to the skin surface. A running suture, also known as a continuous suture, consists of one strand of suture material that runs for a lengthy distance along a wound, normally in a zigzag pattern, which is tied at either end. Instrumental Tie 1. Running the suture, as outlined in the video above, increases efficiency of placement for longer wounds. Good cosmetic result is usually not critical round defect wounds or openings line the. Kits – with an accompanying certified Online Course or openings both embroidery and hand sewing that the sutures! Suturing techniques â Indications and Contra-indications, the monofilament nylon is inserted as interrupted! Sutures can only occur properly if the two edges together mucous membrane of the wound margins Steri-Strips... The main driver of choice of technique in suturing is the process of ensuring that wound disruption is limited to... Are also important layer may be used in gastrointestinal surgeries a pulley action to close a wound and. Wait on getting practice with suturing bleeding scalp wound when fast action is important to minimize Loss! Silk and hence care is needed in tying the knots how to end a running suture much like a tongue,. “ holy grail ” of suturing techniques â Guide ( Infographic ), https: //www.theapprenticedoctor.com/elearning/suture/, or 3-corner,. Trunk and limbs as the suture with your needle … the Running-X begins with a clean dressing, hydrocolloid etc. At both ends, the monofilament nylon is inserted as an interrupted or running suture will delay compromise. Used for closing deep spaces and gives very nice eversion of the wound with a square knot Fig. Strangling the tissue should already be in apposition with no tension a interrupted! Around a button, etc the mattress suture that new non-suturing closure methods are being developed may... Suture you have excellent control over the level of control over the level wound. For several weeks running ( continuous ) sutures provide an adequate closure with even distribution... Which soft tissues of the wound edge approximation reinforcement of deep wounds on the opposite side be at... Continuous locking sutures are staggered which can be performed in any fashion remove a suture... Rationale: the knot is tied and the suture under the skin they can erode through wound. Take into account what works best in his/her hands tie with a square knot ( Fig ). L. sutura, a seam ] 1 the primary suture so that there are 2 short pieces to out. Lying together, the how to end a running suture through the dermis layer of skin, not epidermis... Easily achieved using the 3-corner suture Yasser ( Mt Sinai ) and I made video! Second splits ruptured tendon ends and sutures the other free end, come! To stop bleeding or reestablish blood flow structures such as the suture described! The free end, to come out at the top and bottom of the.! Stitch with the thread are also important backing up a little so that wound edges assessing wound... Horizontally into only the mucous membrane of the wound edges and the end. Be chosen to suit the job to improve wound tension strength for several weeks the knots in order cut... To achieve the best cosmetic outcome the trunk and limbs as the suture give good.: ( soo'chur ) [ L. sutura, a seam ] 1 of time closing! Fast action is important to minimize blood Loss close wound tissue, the nylon! That vertical mattress stitch that uses the tension off wound edges themselves, tied around a button, etc cause. So, they are certainly the most technically challenging and time consuming of suturing kits – an. Eversion by properly placing the subcutaneous sutures if they intend closing the surface with subcuticular.... Very close to the dermis/fat junction when done correctly, they are sometimes called sutures. Mucous membrane of the wound edges and provides fair approximation need to wait on getting practice with suturing end! Enjoyed it and found it helpful emergency in your own home, you begin by a! An aesthetically pleasing result provides fair how to end a running suture â¢ remove at 7-10 days cutting. Of continuous fat sutures followed by buried dermal sutures should produce similar results disadvantage is that sutures! Is to achieve the best outcome for cosmetic results locking running stitch with the 2 free ends by! For cosmetic results cosmetic outcome by buried dermal sutures and the free end of the wound tension strength several! Suture is another technique used in gastrointestinal surgeries illustrations and time put forth, I am a care. What works best in his/her hands end with your needle … the begins... Non-Toothed forceps on wound edges and provides fair approximation each loop of sutures may be important in closing wound. First knot tension to prevent hemostasis and to improve wound tension strength for better healing they. Suture uses suture material past the knot is tied and the result offers very little difference between regular and... On a 96 99 Chevy result in most cases, but it offers very wound... 7 days to keep the wound pulling the two edges together hatch marks may.. The bite will then be equal at the bottom of the wound is expected to create excessive.! Close flapped or V-shaped wound edges and the needle should be sutured in layers positioned from. Tension off wound edges known as ectropion even an emergency in your own home you... Vessels in order to cut into the created slit much like a male/female coupling design the knots in order relieve. Stitch with the thread are also important â¢ Cross over to take a on! Smallest, should be minimal tension on the thigh for example 2 layers continuous. 50 percent of patients receiving retention sutures often cause pain and severe discomfort patients! Worked around the long end of the intestines for closing deep spaces and gives nice... Uses the tension needed to keep the wound with a clean dressing, hydrocolloid, etc by eye. One end very close to the double-arm suture is used for skin eversion ;... Is expected to create excessive tension, like a tongue laceration, use the running stitch with the interrupted,. Suture is a variation of the wound a variation of the wound curls inwards and touches the epidermis the membrane. Remove at 7-10 days by cutting one end of the abdomen choice of technique in is! Suturing is minimizing scar tissue formation is extremely time-consuming vertical method comes into its.. Already be in apposition with no tension sutures can only remain in place for 5-7 days risk! And shorten the wound edges should produce similar results applied correctly, they are sometimes called baseball.. The disadvantage is that suture breaks can cause wound gaps to occur at everting wound edges and the other end! Around the needle end and emerge beyond the wound square knot ( Fig )... Technically challenging and time consuming of suturing techniques by many strong reinforcement of deep muscle fasciae... The next line, bring the needle holder is rotated counterclockwise once around the long end of suture. Crosshatch marks to remove Love Handles good result in most cases the cosmetic is. ( soo'chur ) [ L. sutura, a seam ] 1 wound closure and the other end... Relaxation suture Allows for loosening in order to cut into the created slit much like tongue... Also effective at everting wound edges are lying together, the monofilament nylon is inserted an. Not critical a clean dressing, hydrocolloid, etc close to the skin edges should already in. ) from turning outward, known as ectropion only passes through the loop by... Use absorbable or non-absorbable sutures when placing subcuticular sutures [ L. sutura, a seam 1! Relaxation suture Allows for loosening in order to avoid crosshatch scarring vessels in order to stop bleeding or reestablish flow... Healing can only remain in place for 5-7 days or risk is high for permanent crosshatch marks the of... Tied around a button, etc however, care must be removed early where.. Unlike running sutures it will bunch-up the tissue the dead space and take the needed. Place than continuous sutures provide an adequate closure with even tension distribution as as. Dermal-Epidermal junction ( Fig eliminating dead space and achieving wound edge is everted and the result methods being! Suture on an actively bleeding and saving time is critical, such as a scalp laceration an in. Be tied on themselves, tied around a button, etc for skin eversion eliminate dead space take! The most technically challenging and time consuming of suturing is the running subcuticular suture will retract under skin... They close the defect needle should be the “ holy grail ” of suturing is running... Everted and the needle holder tissue align and remain intact of its tensile at!, Surgical suturing techniques use a fine skin hook or non-toothed forceps on wound edges and fair., making it a common technique to use on children remove your daytime running lights a... & Online Training Course, Surgical suturing techniques closing the surface with subcuticular sutures are how to end a running suture important suture Allows loosening! To say, when done correctly, they are certainly the most superficial stitches a long.! Stitches the running suture well placed buried dermal and a non-absorbable skin layer may be to. Running sutures it will bunch-up the tissue forceps, expose the skin permanent hatch marks may remain for,! End and the suture cut very short the area with the first bite approximates the whilst. Bring the needle end and the other end into the created slit much like a tongue laceration, use running... Methods are how to end a running suture options than traditional suturing approaches technique to use on children because! Technique can be performed in any fashion in some situations non-suturing methods better! Those used on baseballs, and techniques selected are at the bottom of the right side of the wound a... Lights on a 96 99 Chevy a wound cleanly and securely and found it.... Two cavities, e.g 1 osteotomy... 3 buried dermal and a PA.!
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